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In this section, I hope to answer some of the questions you may have regarding the technical aspects of my photography. You can find additional information on my techniques, etc., by clicking on the button titled "THE STORY BEHIND THIS IMAGE" that can be found below many images; those images are indicated by an asterisk (*) in the Index by Numbers list.
Viewing Images On a Computer Monitor
The small reproductions of my images that appear on this website only hint at the rich, fine detail seen in photographic prints. The illustration below attempts to give you a better idea of the actual image quality by enlarging a small area (this is Image #9612, Spider Rock/Canyon de Chelly, Arizona); in particular, note the amount of detail and the richness of color in the background:

The reproductions on this website represent the printed images as accurately as possible, but they're not the same as prints. In addition to the matter of fine detail, no two monitors show colors, brightness and contrast quite the same. Also, prints have a different kind of luminosity, because they reflect light, whereas computer monitors emit light. I suggest you view the images under soft ambient light and adjust your monitor, if necessary, so the images look as "natural" as possible.
Equipment
I'll keep this section brief, because the equipment I use evolves continuously and I do not wish to give the impression that one's creativity is defined or necessarily limited by the specific equipment they use. Having said that, the view camera I used for many years prior to 2005 was a Wista SP, with a variety of Schneider and Nikon lenses; the digital camera and most of the lenses I have used since then are Nikon (this is not necessarily an endorsement of these brands; it's just that people wonder and I have been very happy with them as creative tools). I always use a tripod, a cable release, and the "mirror up" setting on the camera to eliminate vibration. Beyond that, there are many books, magazines and online tutorials to guide you in selecting equipment that best meets your needs and budget. One excellent resource is Digital Photography Review. Keep in mind that, whatever equipment you use, your familiarity with the fundamental principles of photography and the care, precision and creativity with which you use your equipment directly influence the quality of the final results. In the words of Alfred Eisenstaedt, "The important thing is not the camera but the eye."
Digital Manipulation
With today's sophisticated image-editing software, it's possible to make many adjustments to images to "perfect" them. With all of my images, I put a great deal of time and effort into expressing what I experienced at the moment I captured them. In doing this, I go to great lengths to make it appear that the images have not been adjusted or manipulated at all. Having said this, I would like to be clear that I use two different standards for the degree to which I will manipulate images: one for my landscape images, the other for my commercial work.
With my natural landscapes, I believe a certain trust must be established with the viewer, based on the traditional values of fine-art photography. What this implies is that certain kinds of manipulation are to be expected, such as dodging; burning; adjustment of color, contrast and density; spotting (to remove tiny imperfections); and cropping (to fine-tune the relationships among visual elements and the edges of the image). While I digitally manipulate all of my images, I do so within the range of adjustments that is considered appropriate for fine-art photography, yet I am able to make those adjustments in ways that are much more precise than was possible before digital tools became available. It is most important, however, to point out that the content of each image and the relationships among visual elements remain true to what was actually in front of the camera at the moment I captured the image.
I consider my commercial work (which I refer to as "photo assignments" in the Table of Contents) to be applied art, rather than fine art, because I must satisfy my clients, rather than just myself; I must tell their stories, not mine. In doing so, I believe it is appropriate to apply more lenient standards, based on the ultimate purpose and use of the images. It is certainly acceptable to perform all of the manipulations mentioned in the previous paragraph. In addition, it is often considered appropriate to alter the content of an image, within certain limits. The standard I use for my architectural photos, for example, is that I will freely eliminate visual distractions such as power lines, trash, bare spots in lawns, etc., that have little to do with the architecture, and I will often put in more interesting skies. The one thing I will not do, however, is misrepresent my clients' capabilities, because I feel to do so would be unethical. With such images, which I call "photo illustrations," there is no pretension of fine art, although I try to make them as artful as I can. There is, however, an expectation that an image accurately (if somewhat idealistically) represents my client's capabilities and tells an effective story about the subject. In other words, while I always attempt to employ the highest level of art and craft in portraying my clients' capabilities to best advantage -- to tell stories about the goodness of their work and how their work reflects an understanding of human needs and wants -- I will not misrepresent their capabilities.
Filters
The only filter I use on a regular basis is a circular polarizer, which I use judiciously to fine tune the value and contrast of skies and to reduce specular reflections off of vegetation and other surfaces. On rare occasion, when I was using the technical field camera (with film), I would use a graduated neutral-density filter to darken the sky. But I found that it usually created unnatural visual effects in the zone between the land and the sky. I now use HDR techniques (next item) to control values throughout my images much more precisely and effectively.
HDR
One of the many benefits of digital photography is the ability to take full advantage of high-dynamic-range techniques, commonly referred to as HDR. No film or digital sensor is capable of capturing as wide a range of values (light to dark) as our eye/brain systems can. In very contrasty lighting situations (those where the range of values exceeds the film or sensor's capabilities), either the highlights will be burned out (completely white) or black -- or both. But by keeping the camera steady and making multiple exposures, so that detail is rendered in highlights and shadows, then combining those exposures using HDR software with great care, an effect can be achieved that is close to what the eye actually perceives. One caveat is that if there is any movement of visual elements from one exposure to the next, the results are likely to be less than satisfactory; for this reason, I tend to use HDR most often for architectural photography. Nevertheless, there are some situations when photographing nature where HDR is extremely advantageous, such as with Image #0949, where the snow and water were quite bright and the shadowy recesses extremely dark. Fortunately, the air was perfectly still while I was making this image. The only way to capture what I actually saw was by using HDR. I would also like to add that one of the most identifiable characteristics of photographs, as a form of art, is excessive contrast, which distinguishes them from, for example, paintings. By employing HDR where necessary, I can approach the subtlety and control of values most commonly associated with paintings.
Stitching
For some of my panoramas, I make multiple images and stitch them together. By setting the axis of rotation precisely vertical, keeping the camera level, using manual focus and exposure, and overlapping the images about 30%, stitching software is usually able to combine the images perfectly. If the scene is very contrasty, I might also do HDR. Image #1134 is an extreme example of this. I rotated the camera to portrait orientation, shot at five different angles, and made six exposures (at one-stop intervals) at each angle, making a total of 30 images combined into the final image. The result is extremely rich in terms of detail and tonality.
RAW
When capturing images digitally, I always use the RAW format, which provides the greatest flexibility in fine-tuning the images in post-capture processing. First, I get reasonably close to the final result I want in processing the RAW image. I then save the image as a 16-bit TIFF and "take it home." Once I have the image exactly the way I want it, I save it as an 8-bit TIFF, which I consider the "master." I then use that to create JPEGs or other (lossy) formats. I always retain the RAW files of my landscape images for reprocessing later, if need be. In effect, the RAW files serve a function similar to film negatives or transparencies.